Publication: Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction

Prior work on physiological game interaction has focused on dynamically adapting games using physiological sensors. In this paper, we propose a classification of direct and indirect physiological sensor input to augment traditional game control. To find out which sensors work best for which game mechanics, we conducted a mixed-methods study using different sensor mappings. Our results show participants have a preference for direct physiological control in games. This has two major design implications for physiologically controlled games: (1) Direct physiological sensors should be mapped intuitively to reflect an action in the virtual world; (2) Indirect physiological input is best used as a dramatic device in games to influence features altering the game world.

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Participants

Lennart Nacke
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, University of Saskatchewan
Michael Kalyn
University of Saskatchewan
Calvin Lough
University of Saskatchewan
Regan Mandryk
University of Saskatchewan

Projects

Affective Computing
Evaluation of a user's emotional experience with technology is not well understood, especially when the primary goal of a technology is to entertain (e.g., computer game) or to invoke an emotional experience (e.g., animated film).

Citation

Nacke, L.E., Kalyn, M., Lough, C., Mandryk, R.L. 2011. Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction. In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2011), Vancouver, BC, Canada. 103-112. Honorable Mention Award. DOI=10.1145/1978942.1978958.

BibTeX

@inproceedings {202-Nacke-Biofeedback_Game_Design,
author= {Lennart Nacke and Michael Kalyn and Calvin Lough and Regan Mandryk},
title= {Biofeedback Game Design: Using Direct and Indirect Physiological Control to Enhance Game Interaction},
booktitle= {Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2011)},
year= {2011},
address= {Vancouver, BC, Canada},
pages= {103-112},
note= {Honorable Mention Award}
}