Publication: Gamification: Toward a Definition

This paper proposes a working definition of the term gamification as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. This definition is related to similar concepts such as serious games, serious gaming, playful interaction, and game-based technologies.




Sebastian Deterding Rilla Khaled
Lennart Nacke
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, University of Saskatchewan
Dan Dixon


Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.E., Dixon, D. 2011. Gamification: Toward a Definition. In CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


@inproceedings {219-02-Deterding,-Khaled,-Nacke,-Dixon,
author= {Sebastian Deterding and Rilla Khaled and Lennart Nacke and Dan Dixon},
title= {Gamification: Toward a Definition},
booktitle= {CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings},
year= {2011},
address= {Vancouver, BC, Canada}